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PIERS
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium 

PIERS 2010 in Xi'an, CHINA, 22-26 March, 2010

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PIERS2009 in Beijing -- Locale and Hotel

About Xi'an - VideoShow Visit Xian Weather China

Xi'an, the capital of Shaanxi Province, is the political, economic and cultural center of Northwest China. As one of six ancient Chinese capitals, Xi'an is best known for its ancient historical ruins, museums, cultural relics, and archaeology.

Conference Site - Jianguo Hotel Xi'an


Address: 2 Hu Zhu Road, Xi'an, China

Jianguo Hotel is a famous hotel brand in China, managed by Jianguo Hotels & Resorts. It is nicely located in one of the ancient capitals of China, attracting numerous international and domestic guests. Refurnished and reopened in March 2009, the Jianguo Hotel Xian is within forty-five minutes of driving distance from the Xian Xianyang International Airport. The hote is just five minutes from the East Gate and is situated just outside the boundary of the city wall.

Pick-up service by Jianguo Hotel
There will be pick-up service(CNY25) by Jianguo Hotel every hour (9:00-18:00) during March 21-23 at the Xi'an airport, if you lodge at Jianguo Hotel. If you need this pick-up service, please download the pick-up service reservation form(DOC, PDF) and email or fax to the hotel.

Hotel Reservation
Room Photos: The modern hotel rooms are equipped with an array of modern conveniences, including safe deposit box, satellite/cable television and internet access (complimentary).

Hotel Photos (taken by PIERS OFFCE on March 29th, 2009)

  • Online Reservation in PIERS Group Rates, with credit card guarantee for Jianguo Hotel will be available. Lodging expense will be paid in the hotel check-in desk ONLY. No-show without cancellation 14 days prior to arrival will be charged for a one-day room rate.
  • Hotel Reservation Form can be also directly sent to the hotel via Email or FAX.
    Download: HotelReservationForm.doc, HotelReservationForm.pdf
  • All guests are advised to book early before February 10, 2010 in this spring season. After this date, special group rate is no longer guaranteeed. The number of rooms reserved is limited. Room availability is on first-come first-serve basis.
  • Any inquiry about hotel reservation, please directly contact the hotel manager via EMAIL or FAX.
    Contact Person: Ms. Susie Zhang (Reservation Manager), Email: res@hotelxianjianguo.com , FAX: +86-29-83237180
  • Please feel free to contact PIERS OFFICE, if you have any problem in hotel reservation.

Arrival Guide

From Xi'an Xianyang International Airport >> Jianguo Hotel Xi'an

  1. Take Taxi (about 60 minutes, CNY150) >> Jianguo Hotel Xi'an
  2. Take Airport Bus No. 1 (about 60 minutes, CNY25, 6:00--20:00) >> Bell Tower >>>
    >> Take Taxi (about 15 minutes, CNY15, 5km) >> Jianguo Hotel Xi'an
  3. Pick-up service(CNY25) by Jianguo Hotel every hour (9:00-18:00) during March 21-23 at the airport, if you make hotel reservation at Jianguo Hotel. If you need this pick-up service, please download the pick-up service reservation form(DOC, PDF) and email or fax to the hotel.
    Contact Person: Ms. Susie Zhang (Reservation Manager), Email: res@hotelxianjianguo.com , FAX: +86-29-83237180
  4. Special pick-up service(CNY320) for Airport to Jianguo Hotel, please directly contact Ms. Susie Zhang, via email: res@hotelxianjianguo.com.

City Tour Guide

Tour Program for PIERS participants (DOC, PDF)

Xi'an is one of China's eight ancient national capitals . It served as China’s capital for ten dynasties, spread intermittently over a 1,100 year period from 221 BC. This was the significant year when the first Chinese emperor, Qin Shihuang, united China for the first time. China derives its name from Emperor Qin. Xian is the capital of Shaanxi province, located in the southern part of the Guanzhong Plain. With the Qinling Mountains to the south and the Weihe River to the north, it is in a favorable geographical location surrounded by water and hills. It has a semi-moist monsoon climate and there is a clear distinction between the four seasons. Except the colder winter, any season is relatively suitable for traveling. Xi'an was the starting point of the ancient Silk Road that extended from Asia to Europe and played an important role in cultural exchange between the East and West in ancient times.

Tour Attractions

As one of the birthplaces of the ancient civilization in the Yellow River Basin area of the country, Xian also enjoys equal fame with Athens, Cairo, and Rome as one of the four major ancient civilization capitals in the World. Xi’an’s main tourist attractions include: The Terracotta Warriors and Horses, The Ancient City Wall, The Big Wild Goose Pagoda, The Small Wild Goose Pagoda, Huaqing Hot Springs, Banpo Neolithic Village Museum, The Forest of Steles , The Great Mosque, Qianling Mausoleum and Famen Temple, Huashan Mountain, Huangdi's Mausoleum and etc.

Local Cuisine

Xi'an cuisine has a good, hearty style that should never let you leave the table hungry. Noodles and Dumplings are the staples of the local food and these are almost always filling and warming. Your interesting culinary experience in Xian is to taste the dumplings that offers up to 108 different kinds. Yangrou Paomo is also a tasty Xi'an specialty that consists of a mutton soup served with the steamed bun. The hard bread is broken up and steeped in the soup. Then the mixture is eaten along with pickled garlic cloves. It is a great pleasure of visiting Xi'an to taste the local delicacies of Xi'an.

Evening Performance

The Tang Dynasty Music and Dance Show, a wonderful performance of the ancient music and dance, is a must when you visit Xian. The city, which was formerly known as Chang'an has a very long history, and was the imperial capital during 13 dynastic periods. Of these, the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907) was the most prosperous and glorious of all. The Tang Dynasty Music and Dance Show is an outstanding exponent of this ancient stable and prosperous society, keeping alive its splendid culture and providing an insight into the peaceful life style of the period.
Adapted from a famous poem wirten by Bai Juyi, a great poet in Tang Dynasty, the show of " the Song of Everlasting Sorrow" describe the tragical love story between Tang Ming Emperor (Tang Xuan Zong) and Yang Guifei (Lady Yang). "In cold spring months, Lady Yang was granted to take baths at the Huaqing Hot Spring together with the emperor. Her peach cream body gently touched by the smooth hot spring"; "The drum in Yuyang which indicated a rebellion startled the Music of Nishang Yuyi"......

Shopping

Xi'an is a good place to do some fantastic Chinese souvenir shopping, especially for cultural items. Some excellent offerings specific to Xi'an include: Chinese calligraphy rubbings, Tang pottery replicas, Terracotta Warrior replicas, Folk paintings, Folk paper cuttings and Green porcelain. One of the most interesting place to buy these souvenirs is the shopping street beside the Great Mosque, where you will be able to find variety of good stuff at a reasonable price. However, you had better to practise your oriental patience and bargain befor going there.

The Terracotta Warriors and Horses

The world-famous Qin Terra Cotta Army Museum is a site museum in China. Built on the site of the terra-cotta warriors and horses pits in the Emperor Qin's Mausoleum, the museum is located at the northern piedmont of Lishan Mountain 7.5 kilometers east of Lingtong County in Shaanxi Province and 37.5 kilometers west of Xi'an City.

In March 1974, a group of peasants digging a well made what was to become the greatest archaeological find of the 20th century when they unearthed fragments of a life-sized Terra Cotta Warrior. Excavation of the vault revealed thousands of terra-cotta warriors and their horses, an entire army designed to follow its emperor into eternity. The emperor's terra cotta army was found in three underground timber lined vaults.

The museum, a hangar-like building constructed over Pit 1, place of the original discovery in 1974, was opened to the public in 1979. The exhibition hall of Pit 3 was built in 1987 and opened to the public in 1989. Later in October 1994, Pit 2 was opened to the public. Three main buildings of the museum, which were named Pit 1, Pit 2 and Pit 3, were constructed on their original sites.
The museum covers an area of 190,000 square meters. Among all, Pit 1 has an area of 14,000 square meters for exhibition halls and Pit 3, 1,200 square meters, and the exhibition hall of copper vehicles and horses and the auxiliary exhibition hall cover over 600 square meters each. Pit 1 contained chariots and ranks of six thousand soldiers. Pit 2 held fourteen hundred figures of cavalrymen, horses and infantrymen, along with ninety wooden chariots. Pit 3 contained about seventy figures. Excavating them has been a massive undertaking.

The Ancient City Wall

Xian City Wall was constructed in the early Ming Dynasty on the basis of the Imperial City of Chang An (Everlasting Peace) of the Tang Dynasty. It is also a symbol of great significance of the famous historic cultural city of Xian. One of the features of the Xian Wall lies in the fact that it has been preserved intact, which is rarely seen in the world. The construction of the Xian City was formally started in the seventh year of Emperor Hongwu's reign (1374) and completed in the eleventh year of Hongwu's reign (1378). The rectangular city wall is 13.7 kilometers in circumference and has 5,984 crenels and 98 places for the garriosn troops to stay in.

The City Wall has corner towers, ramparts, sentry towers, gate towers, battlements and a a number of city defensive fortifications with very strong defense capability. The inner city was once the living place of the King of Qin. It was constructed on the high land in the northeastern area of the city. There the whole city were under control by its advantage of high position. Two continuous walls and a protective moat surrounded the residence. The principal part of the architectural complex was constructed in the light of the traditional pattern of "Palace in the front and bedchamber at the back". There is a suspense bridge in front of the gate. Raising the bridge means, the way to enter the city or go out are cut out. In the Ming Dynasty the fort had become an grand and precise defense system and now is still a better ancient fort kept intact than any other.

After consistent repair and protection, the Xian City Wall now offers a good combination of the city wall, city moats, forest belt and city ring-routes. In early years, those ancient walls regarded as the obstacle to the modernization of the city, but now it is the pride, which offers great honor to the old city.

The Big Wild Goose Pagoda

Giant Wild Goose Pagoda or Big Wild Goose Pagoda, is a Buddhist pagoda located in southern Xi'an, Shaanxi province, China. It was built in 652 during the Tang Dynasty and originally had five stories, although the structure was rebuilt in 704 during the reign of Empress Wu Zetian and its exterior brick facade renovated during the Ming Dynasty. One of the pagoda's many functions was to hold sutras and figurines of the Buddha that were brought to China from India by the Buddhist translator and traveller Xuanzang.

The original pagoda was built during the reign of Emperor Gaozong of Tang (r. 649-683), then standing at a height of 54 m (177 ft). However, this construction of rammed earth with a stone exterior facade eventually collapsed five decades later. The ruling Empress Wu Zetian had the pagoda rebuilt and added five new stories by the year 704 AD. However, a massive earthquake in 1556 heavily damaged the pagoda and reduced it by three stories, to its current height of seven stories.The entire structure leans very perceptibly (several degrees) to the west. Its related structure, the 8th century Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an, only suffered minor damage in the 1556 earthquake (still unrepaired to this day). The Giant Wild Goose Pagoda was extensively repaired during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) and renovated again in 1964. The pagoda currently stands at a height of 64 m (210 ft) tall and from the top it offers views over the current city of Xi'an.
During the Tang Dynasty the pagoda was located within the grounds of a monastery, within a walled ward of the larger southeastern sector of the city, then known as Chang'an.The monastic grounds around the pagoda during the Tang Dynasty had ten courtyards and a total of 1,897 bays. In those days graduate students of the Advanced Scholars examination in Chang'an inscribed their names at this monastery. Close by the pagoda is the Temple of Great Maternal Grace; Da Ci'en. This temple was originally built in AD 589 and then rebuilt AD 647 in memory of his mother Empress Wende by Li Zhi who later became the Tang Emperor Gaozong.

Banpo Neolithic Village Museum

The Banpo Site is a typical Neolithic matriarchal community of the Yangshao Culture dating back about 6,000 years. At that time, the Banpo people used tools made primarily of wood and stone. Women, the crucial labor force, were responsible for making pottery, spinning, and raising the family, while men fished.
The approximately 4,500 square meters (about 1 acre) exhibit area of Banpo Museum is divided into two Exhibition Halls and a Site Hall.
The first Exhibition Hall is about the unearthed relic exhibitions consisting of the First Hall and the Second Hall. The showpieces in this two halls are primarily production tools and domestic tools used by the primitive Banpo people, including axes, chisels, sickles, and stone and pottery knives from which we can have a general picture of the production activities of the Banpo people thousands of years ago. In addition, artwork and adornments here reflect the social life, culture, art and inventions of the period.
The second Exhibition Hall is primarily used for auxiliary exhibitions and it contains two halls. Special shows are held here on ethnology, folklore and the history of art related to the prehistoric culture.
The Site Hall is about 3,000 square meters (about 0.7 acre) and contains residential, pottery making and burial section. And among the three, the residential section is the main part of the site, including the huts, kilns and tombs of the primitive residents. All these present us an outlook of the aboriginal village and the hard situations of the forefathers in pursuing the civilization, reflecting the production level and the social systems at that period of time.
The Banpo Matriarchal Clan Community Village is an extension of the museum based on archeological findings. The entire village enriches the cultural connotation of the museum and carries forward the long and splendid history of China at the same time.



The Forest of Steles

Situated at the site of the Confucian Temple in Sanxue Street, Xi'an, the Museum of Forest of Stone Tablets is a courtyard-styled structure. It covers an area of 30000 square meters. Steles are huge stone slabs which depict important calligraphic writing, often dating back to ancient times. They are held in high regard in China and many people study the artistry of these mammoth pieces.
Xi'an Forest of Stone Tablets was originally set up in 1087. It is an art tablets in China. These pieces of art are works from the Han Dynasty through to the Qing Dynasty, including over 1000 memorial tablets forming the Forest of Stone Tablets. It is not only a treasure house of ancient Chinese calligraphy, but also a rich collection of China's historical documents and records and stone carving patterns. These tablets records a part of the great achievements of Chinese culture and can reveal to us the truth of the cultural exchanges between China and other countries.

Huaqing Hot Springs

Huaqing Hot Spring is one of famous hot springs in China which situated at the northern foot of Mt. Lishan in Lintong County, 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) from Xian City. Historically, the Western Zhou dynasty made the construction of the Li Palace on the spot. In the Qin dynasty a pool was built with stones, and was given the name Lishan Tang (the Lishan Hot Spring). The site was extended into a palace in the Han dynasty, and renamed the Li Palace (the Resort Palace). In the Tang dynasty, Li Shimin (Emperor Tai Zong) ordered to construct the Hot Spring Palace, and Emperor Xuan Zong had a walled palace built around Lishan Mountain and finished in the year of 747. It was known as the Huaqing Palace. It also had the name Huaqing Pool on account of its location on the hot springs.
There are four hot springs in the Huaqing Pool. The water is so clear that you can see down to the bottom. With an even temperature of 43 degree (109 F), the ever-flowing water of the hot spring contains minerals and organic materials that have therapeutic effects on the skin. There are over one hundred bath pools with the total area of 3,000 square meters, which contain 400 persons bathing at one time.

Qianling Mausoleum

The Qianling Mausoleum is located in the Beiliang Mountain of the Qian County in Shaanxi Province.
The Qianling Mausoleum is the joint tomb of Emperor Gaozong (Li Zhi) and Empress Wu Zetian of the Tang Dynasty (618-907). The mausoleum was built in line with the landform of the mountain 1,047 meters above sea level. From 1958 to 1960, the Cultural Relics Management Committee in Shaanxi Province made an archaeological research into the tomb.
The mausoleum is divided into the inner city and outer city; the tomb is located in the mountainside of Liangshan Mountain in the center of the inner city. In the south of the mausoleum, there are three gates. The border of the inner city is square with 1,450 meters in length. The wall of the city is built of earth. In front of each gate there are three watchtowers: one big and two small. Large-scale carved stone groups stand in the mausoleum between the second and the third gate. There are ornamental columns, winged beasts, ostriches, saddled horses led by grooms, unlettered monument, holy merit recording monument and 61 human statues, totaling more than 100 pieces.
The Qianling Mausoleum consists of the tomb path and the coffin chamber. The slope tomb path is 63m in length, 3.9m in width, and 19.5m in depth. They are all built of flagstones. There are 39 steps from the entrance of the tomb path to the tomb door. The flagstone in each step, 0.5m in thickness, is embed and reinforced by iron chains filled with white iron, and is really solid. The earthen step is upon the flagstone step. This kind of construction matches with the recordation in the New Tang Book, saying The Qianling Mausoleum has watchtowers and stone gates, with all gaps reinforced by metal. Historical records also describe the abundance of the funerary objects in the tomb.
In the southeast of the Qianling Mausoleum there is a group of satellite tombs scattering around. It has a wide coverage with the circumference of about 40 km. They are all the tombs of the royal relatives and the important ministers in the court. According to the recordation of General History of Shaanxi Province, these tombs include the tombs of Prince Zhanghuai, Prince Yide, King Ze (Shangjin), King Xu (Sujie), King Fen (Shouli), Princess Yiyang, Princess Xindu, Princess Yongtai, Princess Anxing, King Tejin (Jishan), Li Jinxing, Liu Shenli, Xue Yuanchao, Di Renjie and so on. From 1960 to 1972, the Cultural Relics Management Committee of Shaanxi Province excavated five tombs, including the tombs of Princess Yongtai, Prince Zhanghuai, Prince Yide, Li Jinxing and Xue Yuanchao.

Huashan Mountain

Huashan Mountain is located in Huayin County, Shaanxi province. It is the Western Mountain of the Five Sacred Mountains. It is second highest to the Northern Mountain -- Hengshan Mountain and praised as "the First Odd Mountain in the World". Its craggedness is superior to the other four sacred mountains.
Huashan Mountain boasts five imposing peaks with sheer precipices and overhanging rocks: the east one is called the Peak of the Rising Sun which is the best location to view sunrising; the north one, the Peak of Cloud Terrace which is famous for cliffs on its three sides; the west one, the peak of Lotus; the south one, the Peak of Wild Geese which is the main peak and also the steepest of Huashan Mountain with an elevation of 2,083 meters; and the Central one, the Peak of the Jade Maiden, which links the east, west and south peaks. Each presents a unique scenic beauty, surrounded by over 70 minor peaks. Places of historical interest and scenic spots: towers, caves, stone steps, temples and pavilions can be found everywhere. The cloud-enshrouded cliff path, the sculptured rocky cliff, the floating-in-the-air Somersault Cliff, the cliff-excavated Thousand-Foot Precipice with 370-odd stone steps, the Hundred-Foot Valley, the Laojun's Furrow with 570-odd stone steps, the Ear-Touching Cliff, the Up-the-Heaven's Ladder and so on, are all marvelous views of precipitous and perilous cliff paths.
In ancient times, many emperors came here to make sacrifices to their ancestors, and celebrities visited Huashan Mountain leaving quite a lot of stone inscriptions of poems. Huashan Mountain has many places of historic interest and scenic beauty, as well as many fantastic and legendary stories. Its fascination lasts forever.

Huangdi's Mausoleum

Huangdi, with his family name Gongsun and given name Xuanyuan, is the first humanistic ancestor to create civilization and lay the foundation of Chinese nationality. “Shihchi”carries: Huangdi collapses, buries the bridge mountain. Qiao Mountain became the resting place of him. Huangdi Mausoleum is located on the top of Qiao Mountain in Huangling County, Shaanxi Province, 162km south of Yan’an and 165km north of Xi’an, with the direct expressway available. It was designated by the State Council as one of China’s foremost protected monuments in 1961; the No.1 ancient tomb and is regarded as “No.1 Mausoleum in China”; one of the first national famous scenic sites; among the first national bases of education in patriotism; and also as a national “AAAAA” tourist attraction. As the home of Scarified culture of Huangdi, sacrificial ceremony in Huangdi Mausoleum has been designated as the intangible cultural heritage Qiao Mountain, circled by the Ju River and rich in soil, in which there exist 80,000 aged cypresses, over 30,000 among which are more than 1000 years, forming the largest aged cypress group. And there is the Xuanyuan Temple at the east foot of Qiao Mountain. The sacrificial activities have been lasting for thousands of years. Huangdi Mausoleum has become the holy place for the Chinese to memorize the merits and virtues of their ancestors and express the ethnic feelings.


   
                                                                          Contact PIERS OFFICE: piers@ewt.mit.edu and/or tpc@piers.org